Modern medicine can trace some of its foundational principles to the 19th Century, like, for instance, Germ Theory and sterilization. The 1800's also saw the invention of some of the key diagnostic tools commonly used by doctors today - the stethoscope is a prime example.
Other highly significant advances would be made in pharmaceuticals throughout this time as well as the introduction of the first vaccinations. All of which would save, and dramatically improve, millions of lives thereafter.
The world looked very different before the 1800's and would never be the same again.
These 15 medical inventions and discoveries of the 1800's are but a few of the great advances made throughout this period. This list is in no particular order and is far from exhaustive.
1. Rene Laennec's Stethoscope Changed Medical Examinations Forever
The first entry on our list of medical inventions of the 1800's is one that not many people are aware of.
René Leanne's groundbreaking stethoscope has helped save countless lives since its invention in 1816. Prior to its invention, physicians performed physical examinations by listening with the human ear alone.
This was far from ideal as internal sounds were not amplified, often muffled, and the technique relied on the physicians hearing and ear placement position. It was also awkward for both the physician and patient alike and was far from reliable.
The stethoscope addressed all these problems in one go and changed the way patient diagnosis was performed forever.
Today, the basic principle of this medical device has changed very little indeed. It also remains one of the most important tools a doctor has to hand.
2. Quinine Helped Turn the Tide on Malaria
The use of quina-quina tree bark to treat 'fevers' had been know in South America for sometime before its introduction to Europe by the Spanish in the 17th Century.
At this time, an elixir was produced from the tree bark by first drying it before griding it to a fine powder and finally mixing it with a liquid (usually wine). Although this was known to protect against malaria, no-one knew exactly why this was the case.
In 1820, the active ingredient of the bark was finally reliably isolated by Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Bienaimé Caventou. It could now be synthesized on a large-scale.
Isolated Quinine would now completely replace bark preparations as the standard treatment for malaria. It would also be part of one of the world's first true clinical trials between 1866 and 1868.
Quinine would remain the standard treatment for malaria until the 1920's when it was replaced by synthetic alternatives.
The World Health Organisation still recognizes Quinine as one of the world's essential medicines.
3. Aspirin is Still the World's Most Used Medicine
French chemist, Charles Henri Leroux, first isolated the 'miracle' drug Salicylic Acid (proto-aspirin) in 1829. An Italian, Raffaele Piria later improved on this process in 1838.
Charles Frederic Gerhardt later buffered Salicylic Acid with an extra acetyl group to create true aspirin in 1853. This Acetylsalicylic Acid, true aspirin, was born and then forgotten.
Its more recognizable tablet form was the brainchild of a German chemist, Felix Hoffmann. After rediscovering Gerhardt's findings, he realized it would solve a lot of problems associated with earlier preparations.
Prior to this, patients administered with Salicylic Acid suffered from severe nausea and vomiting. He later patented it.
The patent was then bought by the Bayer Company who immediately realized its potential and began mass production in the late 19th Century. The rest is history.
Interestingly, salicylate derivatives from the bark of a number of trees (including the willow) have been known to provide pain relief for almost 4,000 years since the times of the Sumerians. Ancient records also indicate that the Mesopotamians, Chinese and Ancient Greeks also made this same observation.
Estimates today, by the Internation Aspirin Foundation, that no less than 35,000 metric tonnes are produced and consumed each year. It is also recognized by WHO as one of the world's essential medicines.
4. World's First Blood Transfusion Has Since Saved Countless Lives
In 1818, British obstetrician James Blundell performed the first successful human blood transfusion. Prior to this, other transfusions had taken place, notably by Jean-Baptiste Denis in 1667, but were between animals or between animals and humans.
James' experiment involved transferring blood between a patient who had, unfortunately, hemorrhaged during childbirth.
It would take until 1901 for the procedure to become safe and reliable when Karl Landsteiner, an Austrian physician, identified the human blood groups. This would make transfusions considerably safer and drastically improve the survivability of patients from the procedure.
After some later developments throughout the 1920's and 1930's the procedure was perfected during the Second World War.
5. First Use of Nitric Oxide as an Anesthetic
NO2, or Nitrous Oxide, was first discovered in 1772 by Joseph Priestly. Its 'recreational applications' was first identified by Sir Humphrey Davy at the turn of the 19th Century in his monumental text on the history, chemistry, physiology and recreational use of nitrous oxide.
Towards the end of his book, Davy made the following observation:
"As nitrous oxide appears capable of destroying physical pain, it may probably be used with advantage during surgical operations in which no great effusion of blood takes place."
It would be another 40 years until an American dentist, Horace Wells, first demonstrated its usefulness as an anesthetic in 1844. It wouldn't become 'mainstream' until the 1870's and was a commonly used general anesthetic until the 1960's.
From the 1930's onwards, it would find its place as the main pain relieving go-to during childbirth - much to the relief (literally) of many a mother-to-be.
Of course, in recent times, it has also been used as a fuel booster for "souped-up" vehicles.
6. Antiseptic Theory Has Saved Countless Lives Since 1867
In 1867, Joseph Lister published his "Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery". This was one of the pivotal moments in medical science that would ultimately lead to cleaner operating theatres and higher survival rates of patients.
He was convinced, correctly as it turned out, that cleanliness during surgery was vitally important to the efficacy of the procedure and subsequent recovery of the patient. This was revolutionary thinking at the time.
Lister successfully developed many antiseptic surgical methods, especially with the use of carbolic acid to clean wounds and instruments. He published his results in the Lancet in a series of six articles from March to July 1867.
The effectiveness of his techniques was immediately recognized by his peers and widely adopted soon after. Remarkably one particular hospital noted a decrease in death rates from infectious disease from 60% to a paltry 4% after following his procedures.
7. Cholera Vaccines are a World Essential Medicine
The first vaccines for Cholera were developed in the later 19th Century and became the first widely used vaccine ever made in a laboratory. Early pioneers, like Jaume Ferran i Clua (A Catalan physician), developed an early version in 1884.
This was a live vaccine that he had isolated from cholera sufferers in Marseilles. He used it to treat over 50,000 people in Valencia during an epidemic. Later Waldemar Haffkine developed another cholera vaccine with milder side effects and tested it in Calcutta between 1893 and 1896.
Willhelm Kolle was the first to develop a heat-killed Cholera vaccine in 1896. Kolle's vaccine was much easier to prepare and he successfully used it on a large scale in Japan in 1902.
Cholera vaccines have since become vitally important to world health, so much so, that the WHO recognize it on their list of Essential Medicines.
8. X-Rays Were First Used to Find Bullets in Wounded Soldiers
In 1895, Wilhelm Rontgen became the first person to systematically study and name X-Rays. He was not, however, the first to observe their effects.
Willhelm was a Professor at Wuerzburg University in Germany at the time who was working with a cathode-ray tube in his laboratory. He noticed that when the tube was shielded with heavy black paper, a green colored fluorescent light was generated by barium platinocyanide crystals on a nearby table.
He concluded that some new form of ray was being emitted by the tube. Evidently, this ray was able to pass through the paper and excite the phosphorescent material nearby.
Wilhelm began to systematically study the effect and noticed that the new ray could pass through many other substances but would leave a "shadow" for anything solid, like bones.
His discoveries were groundbreaking and would spark intense further study and interest from the scientific community. Just under 6 months after his seminal work, X-Rays were being used by battlefield surgeons to locate and remove bullets from wounded soldiers.
Today X-Rays form an important part of any doctor's arsenal of diagnostic techniques.
9. The Smallpox Vaccine Was a World's First
Smallpox had ravaged human civilization for millennia prior to the development of an effective vaccine for it. Thanks to the groundbreaking work of one Edward Jenner in the closing years of the 18th Century, it is no longer an issue today.
Jenner famously demonstrated the effectiveness of cowpox to immunize humans from the much more serious smallpox virus. This treatment was later exported to the New World in 1800 by Dr. John Clinch - a friend of Jenner.
Soon after this, it was being used in Spanish and British Colonies all around the world. Vaccination programs soon began to be established with the U.S. Congress passing the Vaccine Act of 1813.
By 1900, smallpox was all but eradicated from Northern Europe with mass vaccination programs continuing well into the 1970's. Today, smallpox is widely considered to have been eradicated in most corners of the globe.
Jenner has since become a legend of medical science and his work paved the way for the practical eradication of smallpox from the world. He is widely credited as the "father of immunology".
10. Germ Theory Changed Everything
The great Louis Pasteur, and Robert Koch identified 'germs' as the cause of many diseases around the world. They were able to develop their groundbreaking theory, in part, thanks to the significant advancements in microscope technology.
Despite the findings, it took him a long time to convince his peers about his theory. At the time, the prevalent theory for the disease was the "bad air" theory.
Pasteur started out as a chemist focussing on the study of crystals. After becoming the Head of the Science Faculty at Lille, he was pestered by the local wind industry to research fermentation.
His studies would lead him to discover that fermentation was caused by living microscopic organisms. From here, he developed his famous pasteurization process and noted that sterilization was imperative in order to stop the spread of disease.
He also insisted that 'germs' could be spread by human contact and transmitted using medical instruments. He also advanced the study of another field of medicine, virology.
Modern medicine would be very different indeed if it wasn't for the work of Louis Pasteur.
11. Leukemia Is First Described as a Blood Disorder in 1845
John Hughes Bennet was an English physician and pathologist who first described leukemia as a blood disorder in 1845. Despite this, Leukemia was first described as a disease (though the source was not identified) by Alfred Velpeau in 1827.
John was also the first doctor to describe the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus in 1842.
Apart from Bennet and Velpeau, other 19th Century European physicians noted that some of their very ill patients had abnormally high levels of "white blood". In fact, Leukemia is derived from the Greek "Leukos" and "Heima" meaning "white blood".
Later work by Franz Neumann would link the disorder with other issues related to patients bone marrow. By 1900, leukemia was noted to be a family of disorders rather than a single disease.
In 2015, an estimated 2.3 million people suffered from the disease which also claimed just over 350,000 lives. Till today, it is the most common form of cancer in children.
12. The Hearing Aid Would Change the Lives for the Hard of Hearing
The first 'hearing aids' were created in the 17th Century. These consisted of basic ear trumpets that directed sounds in front of the ear whilst blocking other noises.
What we would consider today as hearing aids can trace their origins to the works of one Miller Reese Hutchinson in 1895. Miller was an American electrical engineer and inventor who was born in Montrose, Alabama in 1876. He would later die in New York in 1944.
He successfully created that was the worlds first electric hearing aid, the akouphone.
This device worked by using a carbon transmitter to convert and amplify weak audio signals into stronger ones using electrical signals.
His interest in developing his 'hearing aid' was inspired by his deaf childhood friend, Lyman Gould. He would later form the Akouphone Company in Alabama to market the device, but the original bulky tabletop form was not practical.
He would spend the next few years refining it and adding batteries and repackaged the device as the Acousticon. Hutchinson would find some mild success with the device but ultimately sold the rights to Kelly Monroe Turner in 1905 who developed it further.
Modern hearing aids wouldn't become practical until the rise of the computer in the 20th Century.
13. The Mosquito is Found to Blame for Malaria
Ronald Ross was a British Medical Doctor who served with the Indian Medical Service in the later 1890's. He managed to demonstrate that the malaria parasite was transmitted by mosquitoes.
The parasites themselves were identified a little earlier by a French army surgeon Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran. He noted the presence of the parasite in blood samples from malaria patients in 1880.
Ronald managed to identify the malarial parasite in the gastrointestinal tract of a mosquito in 1897. This proved that malaria was transmitted by mosquitoes, and laid the foundation for the method of combating the disease.
He would later identify the transmission method for malaria as well by noting that the parasite could be transmitted to mosquitoes from infected patients. He also noted that mosquitoes could also transmit malaria between birds.
His discoveries won him the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902.
14. The First Open Heart Surgery Paved the Way for the Future
Throughout the 19th Century, various surgeons made successful operations on the heart and pericardium. Francisco Romero in 1801, Dominique Jean Larrey in 1810, Henry Dalton in 1891, and Daniel Hale Williams in 1893 all successfully operated on the sac that surrounds the heart - the pericardium.
The first true surgery on the heart itself was performed by Axel Cappelen in 1895 when he performed the surgery in Rikshospitalet in Kristiania, now Oslo.
Cappalen's operation was to stanch the bleeding to the coronary artery of a 24-year-old man who had been stabbed. Although the operation seemed successful and the young man awoke he died three days later from mediastinitis (an acute chest inflammation).
The following year in 1896 saw the first successful heart surgery (with no complications) by Dr. Ludwig Rehn of Frankfurt, Germany. He managed to successfully repair a stab wound to the right ventricle on 7 September 1896.
This catalog of work throughout the 19th century would ultimately pave the way for modern open heart and other invasive surgery. This was once thought an impossible operation but is now, more or less, routine.
15. The Ophthalmoscope Was Revolutionary
The ophthalmoscope was firstly devised by Charles Babbage in 1847 and later rediscovered and popularised by Hermann von Helmholtz independently in 1851.
The basic principle is to direct light into the eye using a small mirror or prism. This light is reflected off the retina and back into the device via a small hole.
This lets the clinician view a magnified image of the internal structure of the patient's eye.
In the mid-1850's Greek ophthalmologist, Andreas Anagnostakis realized the device could be improved by adding a concave mirror to make it handheld. He had Austin Barnett create a model of his invention for him which he used in his practice before presenting it to his peers.
Andreas later presented it at the Ophthalmological Conference in Brussels in 1857, and the instrument became an instant success among ophthalmologists.
Further refinements were made in 1915 by Francis A. Welch and William Noah Allyn who invented the handheld direct illuminating ophthalmoscope. This was the direct precursor to modern devices used around the world.
Today, it is one of the most widely used medical screening devices in the world.
So there you go, 15 medical inventions and discoveries of the 1800s that have defined modern medicine. Which others would you include? Feel free to add your suggestions in the comments below.