Scotland, the Land of the Brave, whisky (not whiskey), Roman and English resistance and, haggis, is known for so many things. It has a wealth of beautiful landscape, dress-wearing men, fictitious lake-dwelling extinct reptiles (well one), and deep-fried Mars bars.
But they are also incredibly creative and ingenious people, as the following examples will show.
In the following article, we'll briefly explore some of the many inventions that can trace their origin to the Land of the Scots.
What is Scotland known for?
Scotland has a long and proud history but, since the Act of Union in 1707, Scotland's identity has, outside of the UK, been more or less synonymous with the rest of the UK.
As for what Scotland is famous for, we have already mentioned a few things. Ultimately, we'll let you be the judge.
However, it has been a unique melting pot for great thinkers throughout history, as you are about to find out.
For example, according to Richard Feynman, you can thank the Scots for many great things.
Who is the greatest Scottish inventor of all time?
Probably the most famous Scottish inventor is likely Sir Alexander Fleming. He was the man the world can thank for Penicillin.
This antibiotic has, arguably, saved millions of lives since it was first used in 1942. For this reason alone, we believe he should rank in 1st place, if not at least the top 3.
But there are many more great inventors and scientists that have been born and nurtured in the land of the Scots.
What has Britain invented?
Since the Act of Union in 1707, Scotland's innate talent for invention has been absorbed into the ranks of other great thinkers in the rest of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
For this reason, many inventions that are British can also be claimed by the Scots. For example, James Watt (A Scot) perfected the steam engine which has had a profound impact on the world.
But, there have been plenty of English, Welsh and Irish inventors who have all made their own significant contributions to the world.
Greatest Scottish Inventions
Here are some of the most influential Scottish inventions in history. Needless to say, this list is not meant to be exhaustive and is in no particular order.
1. Macadamised roads
Inventor: John Loudon McAdam
The macadamized road was the single biggest revolution in road building since the Roman Empire millennia before. Its development paved the way for much of the modern world as we know it today.
2. The pedal bicycle
Inventor: Kirkpatrick MacMillan and Thomas McCall
In the mid to late 19th Century, two Scots gave the world the first mechanically propelled bicycle. The contributions of Kirkpatrick MacMillan are somewhat controversial, but it was Thomas McCall that first produced a rod-driven two-wheeled, bicycle called the Treadle Bicycle in 1869.
3. The pneumatic tire
Inventor: John Boyd Dunlop
John Boyd Dunlop was a Scottish inventor and surgeon who spent most of his life in Ireland. After noticing his son getting into some difficulty riding his bicycle, he decided to make his cycling life a little easier in the behind.
His solution was to create the world's first pneumatic tire in around 1888. He patented his design and the rest, as they say, is history.
4. Condensing steam engine improvements
Inventor: James Watt
Whilst it was Newcomen who invented the first modern steam engine, it took some significant improvements by Scottish inventor James Watt to make it truly game-changing. His improvements significantly increased the steam engine's efficiency.
The steam engine, thereafter, would literally help drive the Industrial Revolution the world over.
5. The Stirling heat engine
Inventor: Rev. Robert Stirling
The Stirling Engine is one of the greatest Scottish inventions of all time. Whilst they have not been widely adopted, except for specialist applications, since their invention in 1816, they promise to be more efficient than internal combustion engines.
A Stirling engine uses the Stirling cycle, which is unlike the cycles used in internal-combustion engines.
6. Europe's first passenger steamboat
Inventor: Henry Bell
Henry Bell was a Scottish inventor and engineer who is most famous for his development of the world's first passenger steamboat service in Europe. The first of the line, the paddle steamer "Comet" was built in around 1811-12.
7. The first practical screw propeller
Inventor: Robert Wilson
Robert Wilson was a Scottish inventor and fisherman's son is famed for inventing a special kind of screw propeller. It was first demonstrated in 1827 but the patent was awarded to another inventor in 1836.
Wilson also managed to develop a self-acting motion for steam hammers that made them more practical and effective for industry.
8. The steam hammer
Inventor: James Nasmyth
James Nasmyth was a Scottish inventor and engineer who is most famous for his steam hammer. His invention was one of the necessities for the forging industry.
At the time, forges were struggling to make the paddle shaft for enormous vessels like the SS Great Britain. His solution was to replace existing tilt-hammers with his new design for a steam-powered one.
It would revolutionize the industry forever.
Inventor: Sir James Dewar, Sir Frederick Abel
Cordite is a smokeless propellant that was developed in the United Kingdom in the late 1800s. It was, in part, developed by several Scottish inventors including Sir James Dewar and Sir Frederick Abel of the UK's "Explosives Committee".
It would quickly replace existing propellants in many of the British Forces armaments for many years. It was also used as the detonation system in the earliest atomic bombs like "Little Boy".
Inventor: Alexander Graham Bell
The invention of the telephone is widely attributed to Scottish inventor Alexander Graham Bell. This was one of the most important developments in human communication technology in history.
11. Universal Standard Time
Inventor: Sir Sandford Fleming
Universal Standard Time is the modern continuation of British Greenwich Mean Time. It has become the international standard for every part of the world today.
It was originally proposed by Scottish-Canadian inventor Sir Sandford Fleming in the 1870s.
12. Light signaling between ships
Inventor: Admiral Philip H. Colomb
The Signal Lamp was first pioneered by the Royal Navy in the later 19th Century. It proved incredibly effective as a means of inter-ship communication that they still in use to the present day.
Their utility over previous methods, like flags, is significant and they are particularly useful during periods of radio silence for warships.
The earliest proposal for such a system was by Scottish Admiral Philip Colomb in the 1860s. He developed his own code system which, whilst used for a time, was widely replaced by Morse Code.
13. The British Broadcasting Corporation BBC
Inventor: John Reith
Love it or hate it, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) was 'invented' by a Scotsman. If you are not aware, the BBC is the official British Public Broadcaster and is one of the oldest and best known in the world.
It was devised by John Reith and became officially established by order of Royal Charter in 1922.
Inventor: A significant contribution made by Robert Watson-Watt
RADAR is a detection system that uses radio waves to help determine the range, angle, and velocity of objects. It is often used to detect aircraft, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain.
RADAR, whilst the product of various inventors, was greatly improved by the work of Scottish inventor Robert Watson-Watt.
15. Gas-coal lighting
Inventor: William Murdoch
Gas-coal lighting is a system of producing artificial light through the combustion of flammable gases like hydrogen, methane or natural gas, to name but a few. Lighting is produced either directly from the flame or indirectly using things like a gas mantle or limelight where the gas acts only as a fuel source.
Before the advent of electricity, it was one of the most widespread means of providing largescale artificial light in cities and suburbs.
William Murdoch, a Scotsman, was the first to exploit the flammability of gas for the creation of practical large-scale lighting in the 18th Century.
Other notable Scottish Inventions
The following table identifies some significant Scottish inventions and their inventors. This list is far from exhaustive.
|The overhead valve engine||David Dunbar Buick|
|Tubular steel||Sir William Fairbairn|
|The patent slip for docking vessels||Thomas Morton|
|The Drummond Light||Thomas Drummond|
|Canal design||Thomas Telford|
|Dock design improvements||John Rennie|
|Crane design improvements||James Bremner|
|Thermodynamic cycle||William John Macquorn Rankine|
|Carbon brushes for dynamos||George Forbes|
|The Clerk cycle gas engine||Sir Dugald Clerk|
|The wave-powered electricity generator||Stephen Salter|
|Marine engine innovations||James Howden|
|Making cast steel from wrought iron||David Mushet|
|The hot blast oven||James Beaufort Neilson|
|The steam hammer||James Nasmyth|
|Wire rope||Robert Stirling Newall|
|Steam engine improvements||William Mcnaught|
|The Fairlie, a narrow gauge, double-bogie railway engine||Robert Francis Fairlie|
|Threshing machine improvements||James Meikle & Andrew Meikle|
|The Scotch plow||James Anderson|
|The mechanical reaping machine||Rev. Patrick Bell|
|The Fresno scraper||James Porteous|
|Print stereotyping||William Ged|
|Roller printing||Thomas Bell|
|Universal Standard Time||Sir Sandford Fleming|
|The underlying principles of Radio||James Clerk Maxwell|
|The Kinetoscope, a motion picture camera||William Kennedy Dickson|
|The teleprinter||Frederick G. Creed|
|The automated teller machine and Personal Identification Number system||James Goodfellow|