Black scientists have done it all. They've traveled to space, saved countless lives, and fought for the recognition that often came easier to white colleagues. Due to systemic racism, many contributions of these key players were overlooked at the time. These 29 African American scientists have made significant contributions to their respective fields, and greatly deserve their place in history.
1. Patricia Bath
Scientific discipline: Ophthalmologist
Date of birth: November 4, 1942
Place of birth: Harlem, New York City
Date of death: May 30, 2019
Born in Harlem in 1942, Bath was encouraged by her working-class parents to pursue her interests in science. She was the first African American to ever complete a residency in Ophthalmology, which she completed at New York University in 1973.
After graduating, she would go on to lead a fruitful career in ophthalmology with the 'cherry on top' being her invention of the Laserphaco Probe - making her the first African American female medical professional to earn a medical patent, in 1986.
Bath also became the first female faculty member at the Department of Opthalmology at UCLA's Jules Stein Eye Institute. She would also establish the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness in 1976.
During her fellowship in Ophthalmology at Columbia University, she discovered that African Americans were more likely to suffer from blindness, and significantly more likely to develop glaucoma than other patients.
2. Harold Amos
Scientific discipline: Professor and Microbiologist
Date of birth: September 7, 1918
Place of birth: Pennsauken, New Jersey
Date of death: February 26, 2003
Amos was born in Pennsauken, New Jersey in 1918. His parents had close connections with the Quakers, who would often gift books to the Amos family - one of which was the biography of Louis Pasteur. This would spark an interest that would lead to a lifetime fascination with the microscopic world.
Amos completed his undergraduate studies at Springfield College, in Massachusetts, graduating summa cum laude in 1941 with a major in Biology and minor in Chemistry. He was drafted the following year, and after returning home from WWII in 1946, Amos began his graduate studies at Harvard University. After becoming the first African American to earn a doctoral degree from the Division of Medical Sciences, Harvard Medical School, in 1952, Amos traveled to France under a Fulbright fellowship and worked at the Pasteur Institute. He then returned to the U.S. to begin a lifelong career at Harvard University - where he would study and teach for the next 50 years. He was the first African American doctoral graduate of the Division of Medical Sciences, Harvard Medical School, in 1952, and the first African American to serve as a Chair of a department at Harvard Medical School.
Amos was a well-respected educator and often cited teaching as one of his many passions. He would receive many awards throughout his career including the first Charles Drew World Medical Prize from Harvard University in 1989, an Honoris Causa doctoral degree from Harvard University in 1996, the Centennial Medal of the Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences in 2000, and the National Academy of Science’ highest honor, the Public Welfare Medal, in 1995.
During his lifetime, Amos was known for his research into bacterial metabolism and animal and bacterial virology, including the use of bacterial RNA to program the synthesis of higher cell proteins, insulin, etc.
3. Valerie Thomas
Scientific discipline: Chemist, Physicist, and Computer Scientist
Date of birth: February 8, 1943
Place of birth: Maryland
Thomas is a highly accomplished and talented scientist and inventor. Born in 1943, she graduated Morgan State University as one of only two women in her class to major in physics and began a lifelong career working at NASA. She is best known as the inventor of the Illusion Transmitter, which has proved highly influential for NASA research.
Thomas also helped develop the image-processing systems for LANDSAT (the first satellite to send images from space). Her invention would be widely adopted by NASA and is still used in the production of televisions and video screens. She retired from NASA in 1995.
Thomas continued to work for NASA until her retirement in 1995, serving in such positions as Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN) project manager and most recently associate chief of the Space Science Data Operations Office.
Over the course of her career Thomas contributed to the development of SPAN (Space Physics Analysis Network) for research related to Halley's comet, ozone hole studies, and a supernova.
For her contributions to science, she would earn various NASA awards including the Goddard Space Flight Center Award of Merit and the NASA Equal Opportunity Medal.
4. George Washington Carver
Scientific discipline: Chemist and Botanist
Date of birth: 1864
Place of birth: Diamond, Missouri
Date of death: January 5, 1943
Carver was born into slavery during the American Civil War, lost both his parents as an infant and was raised by his former "owners". At 11, he left the farm to attend a nearby all-Black school. Unhappy with the quality of the eduction, Carver spent the next decade moving west, putting himself through school and surviving off of the domestic skills he learned from various foster mothers.
After enrolling in Simpson College to study music, a Methodist school that admitted all qualified applicants, Carver was encouraged by one of his professors to the Iowa State Agricultural School (now Iowa State University) to study botany. In 1894, Carver became the first African American to earn a Bachelor of Science degree, and two years later he earned his Master's.
He spent an extended period of his career at the Tuskegee Institute, where he would make the majority of his scientific discoveries.
Washington Carver almost single-handily built the peanut industry in the United States. His research would help the impoverished farming industry of southeastern Alabama by educating them in crop rotation and plant fertilization. Washington Carver also discovered the nutritional benefit of sweet potatoes.
His discoveries earned him several patents and the 1923 Spingarn Medal. He was also posthumously inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.
5. St. Elmo Brady
Scientific discipline: Chemist
Date of birth: December 22, 1884
Place of birth: Kentucky, Alabama
Date of death: December 25, 1966
Brady was born in Louisville, Kentucky in 1884. He would leave home at the age of 20 to enroll at Fisk University, an all-black college in Tennessee.
After graduating with a degree in Chemistry he took up a teaching position at Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute (Tuskegee University today). After four years teaching at Tuskegee, Brady was offered a scholarship to study at the University of Illinois, Urbana- Champaign, where he became the first African-American to receive a doctorate in Chemistry in the U.S, which he earned in 1916. He also became the first African-American to be admitted into Phi Lambda Upsilon.
Brady would spend a quarter of a century developing the undergraduate program at Fisk University, and founded the first graduate Chemistry program at Howard University. He also helped build the Chemistry department at Tougaloo College in Jackson, Mississippi.
Brady’s research resulted in a number of firsts, including new methods for preparing and purifying certain compounds and early contributions to the nascent field of physical organic chemistry.
He would become a highly regarded educator and would teach at no less than four distinguished historically black colleges. His 'labor of love' for teaching would inspire countless numbers of future chemists.
6. Dr. Betty Harris
Scientific discipline: Chemist
Date of birth: July 29, 1940
Place of birth: Louisiana
Harris was the seventh of twelve children born to her parents in rural Louisiana in the 1940s.
Harris began college at the age of 16, receiving her B.S. in chemistry, with a minor in mathematics, from Southern University in 1961. She then earned an M.S. in chemistry from Atlanta University in Georgia in 1963. After gaining her M.S., Harris worked as an assistant professor of chemistry and mathematics Mississippi Valley State University, Southern University and Colorado College as an assistant professor of chemistry and mathematics.
She began her doctorate at the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee before workin at IBM and as a visiting staff member at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in New Mexico. In 1973, she completed a Ph.D. in Chemistry in 1973 from the University of New Mexico.
At Los Alamos, Harris worked as a research chemist in various fields, including explosives and nuclear weapons., hazardous waste treatment, and environmental remediation. It was here then she developed her TATB spot test for identifying explosives in the field. Her invention has been widely adopted by military and civil institutions the world over.
Harris retired from LANL in 2002, and joined the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Classification. She is also a member of the American Chemical Society and American Society for the Advancements of Science.
7. Dr. Shirley Ann Jackson
Scientific discipline: Theoretical Physicist
Date of birth: August 5, 1946
Place of birth: Washington D.C.
Date of death: January 20, 2017
Jackson was very interested in science and mathematics as a child and would even conduct her own experiments (on honeybees) as a child. She would later use her passion for science to earn a B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D. in Physics. Jackson was the first African-American woman to earn a Ph.D. from MIT in any field, and the second to earn a doctorate in Physics in the US.
After receiving her PhD, she worked at Fermilab, and also did a fellowship at CERN. In 1976, she accepted a position at Bell Laboratories she began working at AT & T's Bell Laboratories, conducting experiments and research into practical applications of theoretical physics. She would later head the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission during the Clinton Administrations and became the 18th President of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
Her main contributions to science revolved around advancements in telecommunications that helped lead to the direct development of technologies such as the portable fax machine, touch-tone phones, and fiber optic cables. Jackson has received many honors and distinctions and serves on the board of directors in many organizations.
8. Benjamin Banneker
Scientific discipline: Astronomer
Date of birth: November 9, 1731
Place of birth: Ellicott’s Mills, Maryland
Date of death: October 19, 1806
A self-taught astronomer and farmer, and son of former slaves, Banneker is best known for his series of highly successful astronomical almanacs that 'predicted' events such as solar eclipses, sunrises, and sunsets. Many passages also contained predictions of the weather and seasonal changes and medical remedies and advice on planting crops.
Banneker sent a copy of his first almanac to Thomas Jefferson (U.S. Secretary of State) along with other documents explaining his position on racial equality.
His earlier accomplishments included constructing an irrigation system for the family farm and a wooden clock that was reputed to keep accurate time and ran for more than 50 years.
Fittingly Banneker died peacefully whilst stargazing through his telescope in a field near his home on the night of October 25th, 1806. He was 75 years old.
9. Dr. James Edward Maceo West
Scientific discipline: Physics/Electronics/Acoustics
Date of birth: February 10, 1931
Place of birth: Prince Edward County, Virginia
West is best known for his work in developing the electroacoustic transducer electret microphone (ETEM). This compact device is currently found in around 90 percent of modern microphones, most telephones, old tape recorders, camcorders, and other devices such as hearing aids and baby monitors.
For his contributions to STEM, he was also inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 1999.
10. Dr. Leonidas Berry
Scientific discipline: Physician/Medical Sciences
Date of birth: July 20, 1902
Place of birth: Woodsdale, North Carolina
Date of death: December 4, 1995
Berry was born in Woodsdale, North Carolina in 1902, the son of a Methodist minister, and grew up in the segregated South. After attending Wilberforce University and the University of Chicago Medical School, he practiced medicine in Chicago for six decades, serving as attending physician and practicing gastroenterology at Freedman's Hospital in Washington D.C. and at Cook County and Provident Hospitals in Chicago, until his retirement in 1975.
Berry is best known for his work in gastroscopy and endoscopy. He became internationally recognized for co-inventing an instrument for taking gastric biopsies, called the Elder-Berry biopsy gastroscope, which was invented in 1955. Berry was also able to determine that alcoholism damaged the liver rather than the stomach (as was the popular belief at the time). He is also known for creating a new type of clinic-based addiction treatment that became known as the “Berry Plan.”
Although he spoke at conferences around the globe, and published close to 100 articles in medical journals, for twenty years Berry could not obtain a permanent staff position at Chicago’s Michael Reese Hospital due to racial discrimination. His experience led him to become heavily involved in the civil rights movement in the 1950s. He treated injured marchers during the 1965 voting rights march in Selma, Alabama and later created a remote area medical service to provide health education and medical care in remote areas.
11. Alice Ball
Scientific discipline: Pharmacist and Chemist
Date of birth: July 24, 1892
Place of birth: Seattle, Washington
Date of death: December 31, 1916
Ball was born as the granddaughter of the, then famed, daguerreotypist James Presley Ball. She studied chemistry at the University of Washington, earning a bachelor's degree in pharmaceutical chemistry in 1912, and a second degree in pharmacy two years later.
Ball moved to Hawaii and in 1915 became the first woman and first African American to graduate with a master's degree (in Chemistry) from the University of Hawaii. Ball was also the first African American and woman chemistry professor at the University of Hawaii's chemistry department.
It was at this time that she began experimenting with chaulmoogra oil to treat patients suffering from Hansen's disease (leprosy). Although it had been used topically, Ball was able to develop the first technique for injecting the oil. This would prove to be the world's first working treatment for this debilitating disease.
Tragically, she would die very young, at the age of 24 and would never receive recognition for her achievements in her lifetime.
12. George Edward Alcorn Jr.
Scientific discipline: Physics
Date of birth: March 22, 1940
Place of birth: Pasadena, California
Alcorn's father was an auto mechanic who was determined that Alcorn and his brother would get an education. Alcorn graduated from Occidental College in Pasadena, California, in 1962, with a B.A. in physics in 1962. In 1963 he completed a master's degree in nuclear physics from Howard University. After earning his doctorate in atomic and molecular physics from Howard University in 1967, he spent 12 years in the industry as a senior scientist at Philco-Ford, a senior physicist at Parker-Elmer, an advisory engineer at IBM Corporation. He would later become IBM's Visiting, and then full, Professor of Electrical Engineering at Howard University.
Alcorn left IBM to join NASA in 1978. While at NASA, he invented an imaging x-ray spectrometer using thermomigration of aluminium, for which he earned a patent, and a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Inventor of the Year Award, in 1984. Two years later he devised an improved method of fabrication using laser drilling.
He was also responsible for developing new technologies required for the space station ‘Freedom’, managed the GSFC Evolution Program, concerned with ensuring the development of the space station, and served as Chief of the Office of Commercial Programs for the GSFC.
13. Jane C. Wright
Scientific discipline: Biologist and Physician
Date of birth: November 20, 1919
Place of birth: Manhattan, New York
Date of death: February 19, 2013
Wright's father was one of the first African American graduates of Harvard Medical School, and he set a high standard for his daughters. Wright studied medicine at Meharry Medical College and Harvard Medical School. After spending time as a residential doctor at Bellevue and Harlem Hospital she would decide to dedicate herself to medical research.
Wright would spend her career building on the foundational work of her father in chemotherapy. During the late 1940s, she and her father began to test chemotherapeutic formulations for treating leukemia and cancer of the lymphatic system. She is credited with developing a technique that tests the effects of drugs on cancer cells, using human tissue as opposed to lab mice.
In 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed Dr. Wright to the President's Commission on Heart Disease, Cancer, and Stroke. In 1967, she was named professor of surgery, head of the Cancer Chemotherapy Department, and associate dean at New York Medical College, becoming the highest ranked African American woman at a nationally recognized medical institution. In 1971, she became the first woman president of the New York Cancer Society.
Wright retired in 1987, after which she was appointed Emeritus Professor at New York Medical College until her death in 2013.
14. Dorothy Vaughan
Scientific discipline: Mathematician and Computer Scientist
Date of birth: September 20, 1910
Place of birth: Morgantown, West Virginia
Date of death: November 10, 2008
Vaughan graduated from Beechurst High School in 1925. She would later earn her B.A. in Mathematics from Wilberforce University in 1929, and taught High School mathematics to suppert her family during the great depression.
In 1943, he took what she thought was a temporary war job processing aeronautical research at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics’ (NACA). Jim Crow laws at the time required her to work separately from her white female counterparts.
In 1949, Vaughan was promoted to lead the group, making her the NACA's first black supervisor, and allowing her to collaborate on projects with other well-known (white) 'human computers'. In 1958, when the NACA made the transition to NASA, segregation was abolished and Vaughan and joined the new Analysis and Computation Division (ACD).
She made ground-breaking advancements in the proliferation of FORTRAN and made significant contributions to the U.S. Space Program. She would be a lifelong advocate for racial and female equality.
15. Ronald McNair
Scientific discipline: Physicist
Date of birth: October 21, 1950
Place of birth: Lake City, South Carolina
Date of death: January 28, 1986
McNair was born in 1950 and would graduate from North Carolina A&T State University in 1971. He later earned his Doctorate in Physics in 1976 from MIT.
Post academia McNair was selected for the NASA Astronaut Program. After his mandatory training, he clocked up 191 hours in space on the STS 41-B mission that launched in 1984. While at NASA, he worked on the development of HF/DF and high-pressure CO lasers.
Tragically, McNair died in the Challenger Space Shuttle Explosion in 1986.
16. Katherine Johnson
Scientific discipline: Physicist and Mathematician
Date of birth: August 26, 1918
Place of birth: White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia
Date of death: February 24, 2020
Johnson was the youngest of four children. She would show an interest and aptitude for mathematics at a young age, which her parent nurtured into her adulthood. Because her home county did not offer public schooling for African-American students past the eighth grade, her family arranged for her to attend high school in West Virginia. Johnson attended West Virginia State University, and graduated summa cum laude with degrees in Mathematics and French, at the age of 18.
Post-graduation she worked for a time as a school teacher before joining NACA at Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in 1952. At NACA, Johnson first worked as a "human computer" and then, after NACA became NASA, on the space program, where she became an aerospace technologist, calculating the trajectories for many NASA missions.
During the Mercury space missions, when NASA began using electronic computers for the first time, astronaurt John Glenn apparently refused to fly unless Johnson first verified the calculations. She also published 26 scientific papers throughout her career.
17. Warren M. Washington
Scientific discipline: Meteorologist/Atmospheric Scientist
Date of birth: August 28, 1936
Place of birth: Portland, Oregon
Washington was born in 1936 to his father, a waiter, and his mother, a practical nurse. Initially advised to study business, at a young age he chose to become a scientist instead. This decision would lead him to become one of the nation's most influential atmospheric scientists.
Warren earned his bachelor's degree in physics and master's degree in Meteorology from Oregon State University. He would later earn his Ph.D. in Meteorology from Pennsylvania State University in 1964.
Warren worked as a research assistant post-academia and the later served as adjunct professor at the University of Michigan. He would later work for the National Center for Atmospheric Research from 1972 onwards. By 1987, he had worked his way up to the position of Director of the Climate and Global Dynamics Division.
Warren served as the President’s National Advisory Committee on Oceans and Atmosphere between 1978 and 1984 and was elected the President of the American Meteorological Society in 1994.
18. Annie Easley
Scientific discipline: Computer Scientist, Mathematician, Rocket Scientist
Date of birth: April 23, 1933
Place of birth: Birmingham, Alabama
Date of death: June 25, 2011
Easley was a trailblazing computer scientist and rocket scientist who developed a variety of critically important NASA software systems. She is, however, best known for her work on NASA's Centaur Rocket.
Easley initially began her career studying to become a pharmacist at Xavier University. She soon became disillusioned and quit in 1954.
After getting married she worked as a substitute teacher but soon joined the ranks of 'Human Computers' at NACA. She remained with the organization when NACA morphed into NASA and later earned her B.Sc. in Mathematics from Cleveland University in 1977.
Annie remained with NACA/NASA for 34 years with her later research focussing on alternative-energy technologies and conservation systems.
19. Arthur B. C. Walker Jr.
Scientific discipline: Physicist
Date of birth: August 24, 1936
Place of birth: Cleveland, Ohio
Date of death: April 29, 2001
Walker was born as the only child to an lawyer father and social worker mother in 1936. He would later graduate from the Case Western Institute of Technology in 1957 with a bachelors degree in physics. His acquired his master's in 1958 and Ph.D. in nuclear physics 1962 from the University of Illinois.
He entered military service in 1962 as an Air Force second lieutenant assigned to the weapons laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio. There he helped to construct instrumentation for an experiment to launch a satellite to measure Van Allen belt radiation. From 1965 to 1974 he worked at the Space Physics Laboratory of the Aerospace Corporation in California where he developed a deep understanding of solar radiation, specifically extreme UV light and soft X-Rays.
Arthur applied his knowledge by collaborating with other scientists to develop the scientific technique of multilayer technology. This would ultimately lead to the development of technology that can be found on two of NASA's major satellites.
Walker became a professor of physics and applied physics at Stanford University in 1974, where his first doctoral student was future astronaut Sally K. Ride, the first American woman in space. When the Space Shuttle Challenger exploded in 1986, Walker was appointed to chair the presidential commission that investigated the disaster.
Walker is best known for his pioneering work in EUV/XUV optics and solar telescopes. These telescopes would be used to produce the first images of the Sun's outer atmosphere during the 1980's. In the 1990s he led a team of scientists who, among other things, were the first to apply normal incidence X-ray optical systems to astronomical observation.
20. Neil deGrasse Tyson
Scientific discipline: Astrophysicist
Date of birth: October 5, 1958
Place of birth: New York City, NY
Tyson was the second of three children and spent his early childhood in Castle Hill the Bronx. His interest in Astrophysics was sparked by his firstever visit to the Hayden Planetarium, when he was nine years old.
Tyson would turn his childhood passion into a lifetime career by initially studying Physics at Havard University and then the University of Austin. He then completed an MPhil in Astrophysics at Columbia University in 1989 before earning his Ph.D. in Astrophysics at Columbia in 1991.
He lectured during his MPhil and Ph.D. at Princeton and later joined the Hayden Planetarium in 1994. Tyson was quickly promoted to the position of Director of the planetarium in 1995 and formed part of the 12-member commission to study the Future of the US Aerospace Industry for the Bush Administration.
Tyson soon became an accomplished scientist in his own right and published a catalog of research papers and 13 books. He is best known by many for his high profile media appearances on PBS' "origins" series and the History Channel's "The Universe", not to mention his regular radio series "Star Talk".
21. Bettye Washington Greene
Scientific discipline: Chemist
Date of birth: March 20, 1935
Place of birth: Fort Worth, Texas
Date of death: June 16, 1995
Greene was born in Fort Worth, Texas, and earned her B.Sc. in Chemistry for the Tuskegee Institute in 1955, and her Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry from Wayne State University in 1962.
After her doctorate, she would join the Dow Chemical Company's Research Laboratory in Midland, Michigan in 1965. Greene is best known for her research and development into the production of latex and other polymers. She is also credited as the first African-American female chemist to work at Dow Chemical Company in a professional position.
She was promoted to Senior Research Chemist in 1970. She would continue working for Dow until her retirement in 1990.
22. Charles Henry Turner
Scientific discipline: Scientist, Research Biologist, Educator, Zoologist, and Comparative Psychologist
Date of birth: February 3, 1867
Place of birth: Cincinnati, Ohio
Date of death: February 14, 1923
In 1886, after his graduation as class valedictorian, Turner enrolled in the University of Cincinnati, where he earned a B.S. degree in biology in 1891, and an M.S. degree, also in biology, the following year.
He held teaching positions at various colleges before returning to school to earn a Ph.D. in zoology (magna cum laude) in 1907 from the University of Chicago. After his time at university, he devoted his life to teaching High School and conducting research in entomology.
Turner would publish more than 70 scientific papers throughout his life. These included some fairly influential pieces such as Hunting Habits of an American Sand Wasp, Psychological Notes on the Gallery Spider.
His fascination with insects would also lead him to show that insects can hear and distinguish pitch, can learn through trial and error and that honeybees can see in color.
23. Lloyd Albert Quarterman
Scientific discipline: Chemist
Date of birth: May 31, 1918
Place of birth: Philadelphia
Date of death: July 1982
Born in Philadelphia in 1918, Quarterman would soon develop an interest in Chemistry. He attended St Augustine's College, Raleigh, North Carolina where he earned his bachelor's degree in chemistry in 1943.
Shortly after graduating, he was recruited by the War Department to work on the Manhattan Project, becoming of the very few Black American scientists to be recruited by the top-secret project. Though he was only a junior chemist on the project, Quarterman had the opportunity to work closely with Enrico Fermi at the University of Chicago and with Albert Einstein at Columbia University.
Quarterman was primarily responsible for the design and implementation of a distillation process for purifying large quantities of hydrogen fluoride, needed to separate and enrich Uranium-235 isotopes.
After the war, he worked at the Argonne National Laboratory, where he would remain for the next thirty years.
Beyond his work on the bomb, Quarterman worked with fluoride solutions to create new chemical compounds. In 1967, he developed a corrosive resistant “window” made of diamonds in order to better study hydrogen fluoride. He also created a novel xenon compound and assisted in the development of the first nuclear reactor for atomic-powered submarines.
24. Joan Murrell Owens
Scientific discipline: Marine Biologist
Date of birth: June 30, 1933
Place of birth: Miami, Florida
Date of death: May 25, 2011
Ownes was born in Miami, Florida, and was the youngest of three children. Growing up near the sea, she soon showed an interest in ocean life and her parents encouraged her ambitions to become a marine biologist.
She attended Fisk University, which didn’t offer any Marine Biology courses. So instead, Owens studied Fine Art, and later received an MS degree in guidance counseling and reading therapy. She went on to teach children at a psychiatric hospital, undergraduate students, and educationally disadvantaged high school students, setting up educational programmes that still influence US government policy.
She never forgot her childhood dream, however, and in 1970 she entered George Washington University, combining modules in geology and zoology to create the equivilant to a marine biology course. which together, allowed her to study marine biology and, in 1985, Owens became the first African American woman to gain a geology PhD. She received her BS in geology in 1973 and her MS in 1976, returning to Howard as a professor of geology in 1976.
Because she suffered from sickle cell traits, Owens was unable to dive, and concentrated instead on laboratory work with corals collected from an 1880 British Expedition. She received her PhD from George Washington University in 1984 and become a professor at the Department of Geology and Geography and later the Biology Department at Howard University.
Owens is best known for her discovery of several new species of the genus Rhombopsammia. She also added a new species to the genus Letepsammia in 1994, naming L. Franki for her husband, Frank A. Owens.
The vast majority of her research was limited to the lab, given her health issues, and was concerned with classifying and studying button corals from the Smithsonian Institution's collection.
25. Margaret S. Collins
Scientific discipline: Zoologist and Entomologist
Date of birth: September 4, 1922
Place of birth: Institute, West Virginia
Date of death: April 27, 1996
Collins was born in September 1922 in Institute, West Virginia. A child prodigy, she would earn her B.Sc. in Science and Biology from West Virginia State University in 1943 and her Ph.D. in 1950 from the University of Chicago.
Her career would be spent teaching at Florida A and M University and Howard University, and conducting field research in North and South America.
She became the first African American woman to gain an entomology PhD and the third African American female zoologist in the US. She was also heavily involved in the Civil Rights movement and was a volunteer driver for the Tallahassee Bus Boycott. Her civil rights and equality activism resulted in her talks being targeted by bomb threats.
Collins' research was mainly concerned with termites. Specifically, their evolution, tolerance to high temperatures, defensive behaviors, general ecology, taxonomy, and etymology.During the late 70s through to the 90s, Collins researched termites in Guyana through the Smithsonian’s Department of Entomology. Through these expeditions, Collin’s informed Guyana’s military of ways to build that would avoid termite damage and how to use termite excretions to strengthen building materials.
She passed away whilst conducting research in the Cayman Islands in April 1996.
26. Ernest Everett Just
Scientific discipline: Microbiologist
Date of birth: August 14, 1883
Place of birth: South Carolina
Date of death: October 27, 1941
Just was born in Charleston, South Carolina, and studied at Dartmouth College, where graduated as the sole magna cum laude student in 1907, receiving honors in botany, sociology and history.
During his career, Just worked at Howard University and at Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory in Massachusetts. He earned a PhD from the University of Chicago, where he studied experimental embryology and graduated magna cum laude.
Just is best known for his pioneering work in developing certain techniques in a number of areas of physiology. These included advancements in fertilization, experimental parthenogenesis, cell division, hydration, diversion, dehydration of cells, and UV carcinogenic radiation effects on cells.
Just was also the editor for no less than three scholarly periodicals and a Julius Rosenwald Fellow in Biology, allowing him to work in Europe. He published many papers during his time in Europe included his contributions to the 1924 textbook General Cytology.
27. James Andrew Harris
Scientific discipline: Nuclear Chemist
Date of birth: March 26, 1932
Place of birth: Waco, Texas
Date of death: December 12, 2000
After graduating from high school, Harris attended Huston-Tillotson College, where he earned his undergraduate degree in Chemistry in 1953. He struggled to find work as a chemist due to racial discrimination, and eventually joined the Tracerlab in Richmond, California, where he worked a radiochemist. In 1960, he accepted a position at the Lawrence Radiation Lab at the University of California.
Despite not having a PhD, Harris led the Heavy Isotopes Production Group as a part of the Nuclear Chemistry Division. Harris is best known for his contribution to the discovery of Rutherfordium (Element 104) and Dubnium (Element 105). Although an equal claim was made by a Russian team around the same time.
The dispute was resolved when the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (UPAC) accepted both claims and ruled on the current naming of both elements.
After the discovery of elements 104 and 105, Harris and the UOC team continued to search for other super-heavy elements in hope of finding useful applications in medicine and energy production.
28. Emmett Chappelle
Scientific discipline: Biochemist and Astrochemist
Date of birth: October 24, 1925
Place of birth: Pheonix, Arizona
Date of death: October 14, 2019
Chappelle grew up on a small farmstead on the edge of Pheonix, Arizona. He would later join the U.S. Army during the Second World War, where he received some training in engineering. He was re-assigned to the all-black 91st Infantry Division and deployed to Italy.
After the war, he earned his B.Sc. in Biology from the University of California in 1950, and then taught biochemistry at Meharry Medical College for several years, during which he began research into iron recycling by red blood cells and anaphylactic shock. He received several offers from prominent schools, and received his masters' in Biology in 1954 from the University of Washington.
Chappelle began a Ph.D. at Stanford and left to join the Research Institute for Advanced Studies in 1958. There, his research focused on ensuring safe, breathable air for astronauts. He moved to NASA in 1966 and worked there until his retirement in 2001.
Chappelle is most famed for his work on life detection on Mars and improvements to environmental management. He wrote more than 35 peer-reviewed papers scientific or technical publications, nearly 50 conference papers, and co-authored or edited numerous publications in his field. He also held 14 patents, mostly relating to fluorescence tests, and in 2007 he was inducted into the National Inventor’s Hall of Fame for his work on fluorescence in organisms.
Chappelle was also honored in the "Top 100 Black American scientists and engineers of the 20th Century" and received the Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal from NASA.
29. Patricia S. Cowings
Scientific discipline: Aerospace Psychophysiologist
Date of birth: December 1948
Place of birth: The Bronx, New York
Cowings earned her psychology doctorate from the University of California, Davis, in 1973. She joined NASA in 1971, as a graduate student.
She was the first American woman to be trained as a scientist astronaut, and was an alternate in 1979. Although she never made it to space, she has spent her career at NASA helping astronauts better adapt to space by studying the effects of gravity on human physiology and performance.
Cowings has spent her career as the principal investigator on various studies. Perhaps most notably, the Autogenetic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) – a treatment for space motion sickness.
The technique teaches astronauts to control 20 physiological responses from heart rate to involuntary muscle contractions. Patricia received many awards and honors throughout her career. These included the NASA Individual Achievement Award in 1993 and the National Women of Color Technology Award in 2006, to name but a few.