Archimedes is one of history's great thinkers. He was astute in philosophy as well as in the arts, active in mathematics and physics, and was recognized as one of the greatest engineers of his time. His legacy lives on in the modern era through historical accountsof his countless inventions and discoveries from 2000 years ago.
Let's take a look at 7 inventions that Archimedes was responsible for.
One major concern of farmers in pre-industrial society was the need to irrigate their land, a considerable issue in the time before sophisticated pumping systems. Different cultures had different ways of dealing with this. One solution, whose introduction into ancient Greece has been credited to Archimedes, was the water screw or screw pump, which is more commonly known today as the Archimedes Screw.
This screw-shaped device was rotated by a windmill or through manual labor. As the entire unit rotated, water was lifted inside the spiral tube to a higher elevation.
The design of this device was so useful that it has even carried over into other industries, where it has been used to move light materials like grain in and out of farming silos.
Archimedes is credited as the person who discovered the principle of buoyancy, which is also known as Archimedes' Principle. This states that a body completely or partially submerged in a fluid at rest is acted upon by an upward, or buoyant, force, and that the magnitude of this force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body.
The story goes that Archimedes discovered this principle after being tasked by the king to figure out whether a crown made for him was pure gold, or whether it contained other metals. Archimedes realized that if he took a lump of gold weighing the same as the gold crown, the two objects should displace the same amount of water, regardless of shape.
If the goldsmith who made the crown replaced any of the gold with a cheaper metal, then the crown would displaced more water.
According to the story, Archimedes used this idea to prove that the goldsmith had cheated the king out of a rightful amount of gold in the crown.
Stories differ on how Archimedes was actually able to discover that the crown wasn't pure gold.
The Iron Claw
Archimedes is particularly famous for designing war machines for his home state of Syracuse, during the Punic Wars. One famous device was called the Iron Claw, which is also known as the Claw of Archimedes.
This machine was thought to have been installed on the seaward-facing walls of the city of Syracuse, to protect the city against amphibious assault. The device is only known about only through snippets of historical accounts, but it was believed to have been some type of crane, with a grappling hook on one end, which was able to lift attacking ships partly out of the water, and then either cause the ship to capsize or suddenly drop it. It may also have been dropped onto enemy ships, to cause them to swing around and destroy themselves..
Archimedes has also been credited as coming up with the first idea for an odometer, or at least a mechanical method of keeping track of distance traveled.
The Roman engineer Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (80/70 BC-15 BC), wrote an account of this idea, which he credited to Archimedes. The odometer operated on the idea that every time a wheel goes around, it travels its own circumference. The odometer may have used a large wheel of a known circumference, along with a series of gears.
The theory is that a gear on the drive shaft had only one tooth and a gear holding a box of pebbles had additional teeth. Every time the chariot wheel goes completely around, the pebble-gear moves one notch. After the wheel had gone enough revolutions to equal one mile, the pebble-gear would have moved so that a hole leading from the pebble box lined up with a hole underneath the gear and a pebble dropped into a bucket. Counting the pebbles could tell you how many miles had been travelled. Each dropped marble represents one mile traveled.
The pulley system
Archimedes didn't invent the pulley, but he did develop different systems of compound pulleys, improving on the existing technology that was around at his time. He clearly demonstrated that a wheel supported by a rope could be used as a method of transferring energy, providing the operator with a mechanical advantage in the process.
Archimedes developed an efficient a block and tackle system, allowing sailors to use leverage to lift heavy objects.
The law of the lever
Archimedes is also credited with finding new uses for the lever. The great inventor supposedly once said, "Give me a place to stand on, and a lever long enough, and I will move the earth." To which he was challenged to prove it.
In one story, he was tasked with launching Syracuse's largest ship. Archimedes is said to have accepted the task and utlized a massive lever mechanism along with a series of pulleys to launch the newly-constructed ship.
Although, Archimedes was not the first to conceive of a lever mechanism, he accurately described the underlying physics and explained the ratios of force, load, and how the fulcrum point interacted with a lever's capability.
Geometry of shapes
The Roman historian Plutarch wrote that Archimedes did not hold his own mechanical inventions in high regard. Rather, he was much prouder of his proofs and theorums in the realm of physics and mathematics. The great engineer is credited with proving that the area of a circle is equal to π multiplied by the square of the radius of the circle. He also proved that the area enclosed by a parabola and a straight line is 4/3 times the area of a corresponding inscribed triangle.
As you can probably tell from this brief list though, the inventor had a significant hand in the elucidation of early physics, mathematics, mechanical design, and even art. He was arguably the greatest polymath to ever live and rightfully deserves his place in the history books.