How and why is China creating artificial islands in the south China sea?

Geoengineering involves large-scale manipulation of essential earth processes to control and direct resources, such as oceans, rivers, soil, and atmosphere.
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China's ambitious endeavor to establish a formidable anti-access/area-denial zone in the South China Sea has been characterized by the creation of artificial islands  through land reclamation. By constructing extensive infrastructure on these man-made landmasses, China aims to solidify its presence and assert territorial claims over the region. In addition to their strategic importance, these islands serve as discreet bases for the deployment of both short-range and long-range weapon systems, enabling China to rapidly project power and expand its capabilities as needed. 

China's land reclamation process involves a meticulous procedure of dredging and depositing sand, sediment, and sometimes rock to construct new land in shallow waters. The country typically selects shallow water areas surrounding reefs, atolls, or other natural features in the South China Sea  to carry out its land reclamation projects.

Dredging ships, commonly referred to as "dredgers," are the primary tools employed in this process. These specialized vessels utilize large rotating cutter heads to break up seabed material, including sand and sediment, which is then suctioned up through a pipe and deposited at the desired location. This continuous pumping of dredged material gradually builds up layers, forming an artificial landmass over time.

The duration of the land reclamation process varies depending on the size of the island being constructed. Some projects can take several months, while others may extend to several years. China's commitment to this undertaking demonstrates its determination to establish a permanent presence and exert control over the South China Sea.

China's land reclamation efforts and the subsequent militarization of the artificial islands have raised concerns among neighboring countries and the international community. The construction of these islands has fueled tensions and territorial disputes in the South China Sea, as other claimant states contest China's expansive claims and assert their own interests.

The fortified presence of China's military assets on these artificial islands has the potential to alter the regional balance of power. This has prompted neighboring countries, such as Vietnam and the Philippines, to strengthen their defense capabilities and seek support from external partners to counterbalance China's growing influence.

China's land reclamation projects in the South China Sea represent a significant and assertive undertaking with far-reaching implications. Through dredging and depositing materials, China has created artificial islands that serve as strategic outposts to establish an anti-access/area-denial zone. The extensive infrastructure built on these islands allows for the concealment and rapid deployment of military assets, bolstering China's power projection capabilities.