Made In China: Chinese Inventions That Changed the World
1. Paper would change the world forever
Paper is possibly one of the most important inventions of all time. Every book is made of paper. Records show that paper existed in China as early as 105 AD.
However, it wasn't widely adopted until one eunuch, Cai Lun, made significant improvements to the papermaking process. He also drove its widespread adoption throughout China.
The technology would later spread to Europe via the famous Silk Road. Its development would have enormous ramifications for the recording and spread of information.
This, in no small part, would have a consequential effect on later technological innovations. From China to the globe.
2. The explosive effect of Gunpowder
Another incredibly crucial Chinese invention was the development of gunpowder. Interestingly, it was discovered completely by mistake around 1000 AD.
Chinese inventors were attempting to develop an elixir for eternal life. As it turned out, the result would be a substance that would prematurely end countless lives throughout history.
Like other Chinese inventions, it was eventually introduced to Europe sometime later. It is widely believed this occurred with the Mongol invasion of 1200-1300 AD.
Whatever the case, it was first described in Europe in the works of Friar Roger Bacon in the 13th Century.
Whilst the Chinese tended to use it for more benign applications like fireworks, the Europeans soon realized its deadly battlefield potential. But that's not to say they didn't also recognize its potential for war.
3. The crossbow was another revolutionary Chinese invention
The crossbow is symbolic of battlefields of the Middle Ages. But they were actually a Chinese invention from almost 2.5 millennia ago.
According to historical records, the crossbow was widely used in China by 500 BC. Other records indicate the technology could date to around 700 BC.
Some other archaeological finds could push the crossbow's invention to as early as 2000 BC. Whatever the case, its invention would have an enormous impact on warfare forever.
The earliest evidence for them consists of the metal triggers and bolts - usually made of bronze. Repeating crossbows also became common in China are the 4th Century BC.
4. Sericulture; a closely guarded secret for millennia
The production of silk, called sericulture, was a very early Chinese invention. Evidence points to the fact that the Chinese were harvesting silk as early as 6,000 years ago.
Silk cocoons have been found cut in half that date to between 4,000 and 3,000 BC. Yet other finds from ancient tombs show silk production may stretch back as far as 8,500 BC.
Whenever it was first developed, the Chinese would master the technique very early on and kept the secrets of weaving silk a closely guarded secret for many centuries.
It became something of a hotly desired commodity, and European merchants would often pay its weight in gold to get their hands on this material.
It would become one of China's most important exports which would lead to the formation of the now famous Silk Road.
5. The Abacus was groundbreaking
The Abacus is thought to have been developed by the Chinese around 500 BC. It should also be noted that other historical records seem to show that the Sumerians might have developed another form of Abacus a lot earlier, in 2,700 BC.
Abaci are also mentioned in later Roman texts, Egyptian hieroglyphics, and Greek artifacts from around 300 BC. Whatever the case, the technology would become perfected around the 1300s and is largely unchanged today.
The device's simplicity and utility would allow it to stand the test of time. They are still commonly used today in many cultures around the world.
In fact, many attest to their superiority over modern digital calculators - at least for simple calculations.
6. Alcohol? We might have to thank the Chinese for that too
Fairly recently uncovered archaeological evidence indicates we have the Chinese to thank for alcohol, too. 9000-year-old pottery shards were found in the Henan province of China that show evidence of alcoholic contents.
If true, this would push its development almost 1,000 years before the inhabitants of the Arabian peninsula who were thought to be the first brewers for many years.
Outside of China, alcoholic beverages and fermentation have been discovered in Georgia (dating to around 6,000 BC), ancient Egypt (3150 BC), and Babylon (3000 BC). Whether these were independent discoveries is unknown, but it wouldn't be out of the realm of possibility that the secret was passed from East to West.
Another discovery, in 1970, in the Pingshan County of Hebei Province, unearthed large amounts of wine-storing and drinking vessels. Two of these appeared to have also contained a drink made from wheat dating to around 2,280 BC.
This might well be the oldest liquor yet discovered in history.
7. China and tea are intimately entwined
Tea is practically synonymous with China. According to ancient Chinese legend, Shennong first discovered tea in 2,737 BC.
Tea became incredibly popular during the Tang Dynasty between 618 and 907 AD. It was enjoyed by all members of society.
The tea plant is actually indigenous to the Chinese region of Yunnan. The world's oldest living tea plant can be found in the Lin Cang in China. This plant is truly ancient and has been dated around 3,200 years old.
Tea would be a closely guarded commodity for the Chinese for many centuries. It would later become popular worldwide and even inspire the British Empire to go to war over tea-trade deficits.
8. You can thank the Chinese for the compass
The very first compasses ever discovered date to the Han dynasty of China, around 206 BC–220 AD. These early compasses were made from lodestone, a naturally magnetized iron ore.
These devices were later used for navigation during the 11th Century Song Dynasty. Lodestone was replaced with iron needles that were magnetized by striking with some lodestone.
As with other Chinese inventions, other cultures would later adopt the compass as they made contact via trade. Compasses began to appear in Europe and the Middle East around 1300 AD.
The compass drastically improved sea trade and was a prerequisite to the later Age of Discovery.
9. Moveable type and printing were a Chinese thing
One of the most important inventions of all time was the development of print. The earliest example comes from a Tang tomb near Xi'an in China.
This delicate manuscript consisted of a woodblock printing on a piece of hemp paper from around 650 to 670 AD.
The movable type would also appear in China sometime around 1088 AD. Shen Kuo, a Chinese polymath, would describe the process in his Dream Pool Essays in which he attributed the technique to a little-known artisan called Bi Sheng.
It would be another four centuries before the technology would be introduced to Europe, thanks to one Johannes Gutenberg. It would literally transform the balance of power and control of information forever.
10. Porcelain was mastered by the Chinese
Porcelain, or vitrified, translucent ceramics, first appeared in China during the Tang Dynasty. Early examples date to the start of this period of Chinese history in the 7th Century.
Glazed ceramics had existed before this time, the technique reached maturity during this period. During the later Song Dynasty (960 to 1279 AD), the technique of creating porcelain reached its peak.
Pieces from this time are exquisite in their fine detail and delicate shapes. Chinese porcelain was highly prized in the world, and many artworks had been introduced to the West through the Silk Road.
11. China might have been using umbrellas for almost two millennia
According to existing historical records, the first reference to a collapsible umbrella dates to around 21 AD. This particular umbrella was apparently developed for a ceremonial four-wheeled carriage of the period.
An actual example of one has also been uncovered from the 1st Century in the tomb of Wang Guang.
There might even be earlier evidence of them from 2,400 years ago. Legend has it one Lu Ban, a Chinese carpenter and inventor developed the umbrella after watching children using lotus leaves as a rain shelter.
More reliable evidence indicates that umbrellas could have been developed during the 6th Century Zhou Dynasty. Bronze castings have complex bronze socketing hinges with locking sides and bolts.
It is believed that these mechanisms were used to hold parasols and umbrellas.